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How To Win A Dogfight: Understanding The Importance Of Angle Of Attack |  Sofrep

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  • Question: one circle vs two circle
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one circle vs two circle

A single circle refers to a closed curve that consists of all the points that are equidistant from a fixed point called the center of the circle. On the other hand, two circles refer to two separate closed curves, each having their own center and radius.

The properties of a single circle and two circles are different. Here are some differences:

  1. Dimensions: A single circle is a two-dimensional object, while two circles are also two-dimensional objects.
  2. Connectivity: A single circle is a single connected curve, while two circles are two separate and disconnected curves.
  3. Geometry: A single circle has one center and one radius, while two circles have two centers and two radii.
  4. Intersections: Two circles can intersect each other, while a single circle cannot intersect itself.
  5. Area: The area enclosed by a single circle is larger than the area enclosed by two circles of the same size.

In summary, a single circle and two circles are different geometrical objects with distinct properties and applications. The choice between one or two circles would depend on the specific context and purpose for which they are being used.

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BFM Lesson #5 – One and Two Circle Fights

Is the F16 a one circle or two circle fighter?

The F-16, also known as the Fighting Falcon, is typically considered a one-circle fighter due to its exceptional sustained turn rate, which allows it to maintain a tight turn radius and stay inside an opponent’s turn in a dogfight. This means that in a typical air-to-air engagement, the F-16 can outmaneuver its opponent while staying within a relatively small turning radius.

However, it’s worth noting that the classification of a fighter as a one-circle or two-circle fighter is somewhat subjective and dependent on various factors, including pilot skill, aircraft configuration, and the specific engagement scenario. In some situations, the F-16 may be capable of performing a two-circle maneuver, depending on factors such as airspeed, altitude, and the maneuvering capabilities of the opposing aircraft.

What is the difference between BFM and ACM?

BFM (Bus Functional Model) and ACM (Assertion-based Coverage Model) are two different verification methodologies used in the context of hardware design verification.

BFM is a high-level model of a hardware interface, which defines the behavior of a bus or protocol in terms of transactions, signals, and timing. It is used to simulate and verify the interactions between various components of a system that communicate through a specific bus or interface. BFM is typically written in a high-level hardware description language (HDL) such as SystemVerilog or VHDL and can be used to create testbenches and test scenarios for simulation-based verification.

On the other hand, ACM is a methodology for measuring and analyzing the effectiveness of functional coverage achieved by a verification environment. It involves writing assertions (properties or constraints) in the HDL code that specify the expected behavior of the design under test. ACM checks whether these assertions are satisfied during simulation and generates coverage metrics to determine how much of the design functionality has been exercised by the test suite. ACM helps in identifying functional coverage holes and gaps in the verification process.

In summary, BFM is used to model the behavior of a specific interface or bus, while ACM is used to measure and improve the functional coverage achieved by the verification environment.

What does one circle mean in a dogfight?

In a dogfight, a single circle maneuver is a defensive maneuver where the pilot of the targeted aircraft turns into the attacker in a circular path. The purpose of this maneuver is to force the attacking aircraft to overshoot and to give the defending aircraft an opportunity to reverse the situation and attack.

The single circle maneuver is typically used when the attacker has a positional advantage and is closing in on the defender. By turning into the attacker, the defender reduces the attacker’s closure rate and makes it more difficult for them to maintain a firing solution.

The single circle maneuver is just one of many possible maneuvers in aerial combat, and its effectiveness depends on the specific situation and the skill of the pilots involved.

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Bfm Lesson #5 - One And Two Circle Fights - Youtube
Bfm Lesson #5 – One And Two Circle Fights – Youtube
Basic Fighter Maneuvers - Wikipedia
Basic Fighter Maneuvers – Wikipedia
How To Win A Dogfight: Understanding The Importance Of Angle Of Attack | Sofrep
How To Win A Dogfight: Understanding The Importance Of Angle Of Attack | Sofrep


A dogfight is a term used to describe a close-range aerial combat between fighter planes. It was commonly used during World War I and II, when fighter pilots engaged in intense and often deadly air battles.

In a dogfight, two or more planes engage in a high-speed pursuit and try to gain an advantage over their opponents through evasive maneuvers, such as barrel rolls, loops, and sharp turns. The objective is to get behind the other plane and fire the onboard weapons to take it down.

Dogfights require high levels of skill, courage, and tactical thinking. Pilots need to be able to outmaneuver their opponents while also avoiding being shot down themselves. They must also be able to read the movements of their opponents and anticipate their next move.

While dogfighting is no longer as common in modern warfare, it remains a popular subject in movies, video games, and other forms of media.

Rolling scissors

The scissors is an aerial dogfighting maneuver commonly used by military fighter pilots. It is primarily a defensive maneuver, used by an aircraft that is under attack. It consists of a series of short turns towards the attacking aircraft, slowing with each turn, in the hopes of forcing the attacker to overshoot. Performed properly, it can cause the attacking aircraft to move far enough in front to allow the defender to turn the tables and attack.

The scissors is a close-maneuvering technique, and as such, is really only useful when defending against guns or low-performance missiles. It was a major technique from World War I to the Korean War, but is much less common today. The introduction of high-angle missiles makes it much less effective, as the attacker can shoot even when the defender is not in front of them. Modern aircraft also make it difficult to use this technique as they maintain energy much better than earlier designs and the maneuvering limits are often the pilot’s physical limitations, not the aircraft.

In fact, for many years now, fighter pilots flying aircraft with even a reasonable thrust-to-weight ratio and average wing loading are well-advised to avoid engaging in a scissors maneuver, since any turning, rolling, or slow-speed disadvantage the pilot’s aircraft might have with respect to that of their opponent (or pilot skill in energy assessment and management techniques) will quickly become evident in the scissors, and lead to their defeat in short order.

Flat scissors

A flat scissors maneuver typically results when two fighters of similar capability encounter each other at similar speeds and in the same plane of motion, and the attacking fighter has failed to press an initial positional and angular advantage into a kill, and has “overshot”, or passed behind the defender. (To overshoot is to fly from an AOT (angle-off-tail: the angle between the nose of the attacker and an imaginary extended line from the nose through the tail of the defender and extending behind it into the air) of less than 90 degrees to an AOT of greater than 90 degrees.)

As such, an attacker who finds themselves in a flat scissors has transitioned from an offensive to a neutral engagement and has lost their offensive advantage. The defending pilot is often surprised initially by what was likely an unobserved attack from the rear, and while they have survived a highly defensive situation that has become a somewhat neutral encounter after the overshoot, the defender must still react quickly. After the overshoot, if the defender chooses to remain engaged with a nose-to-nose turn (that is, a turn toward the attacker in the general direction of the attacker’s direction of flight) to either gain the advantage or maintain the neutral situation, the flat scissors is a common result.

Once initiated by the defender, it is difficult to disengage from a flat scissors without being exposed to danger from the weapons of the other aircraft. An experienced and patient defender might be able to turn the scissors to their advantage, however. The defender possessing superior turning capability may also initiate a flat scissors offensively, although this is certainly a dangerous gambit (as it involves allowing the attacker to approach to close range from behind), but one that may be forced upon the defender by the attacker’s superior engine power or speed. After becoming aware of a more or less co-planar attack from their rear hemisphere, the defender uses co-planar energy techniques (using power reduction, uncoordinated flight, flaps, slats, or speed brakes) without moving out of the initial plane of the attack. By remaining in the same plane of the attack, the defender might be able initially to deceive the attacker about the two airplanes’ rate of closure, quickly placing the attacker into a position in which a successful attack cannot be made due to close proximity, too much angle-off-tail, or both.

In any case, if both pilots’ reaction to a co-planar overshoot with only a minor air-speed differential is a co-planar nose-to-nose turn, then a flat scissors will often result.

During the repeated brief nose-to-nose passes it is possible to get off what is called a “snap-shot” (a very brief high-aspect shot) at the opponent fighter. This process of 180-degree rolls and reversed turns can be repeated many times while each pilot seeks a positional advantage through energy management, and seeks to avoid a disadvantage.

In the flat scissors, the turns and maneuvering are accomplished more or less on one plane, an imaginary flat surface (thus the term “flat” scissors) that is not necessarily horizontal, although the horizontal is a common case. The flat scissors continue until either one fighter (usually the fighter with better rolling or instantaneous turning characteristics) gains an advantage (usually due to an ability to reduce speed effectively while retaining sufficient roll and turn response from their aircraft) and gets behind their opponent and successfully shoots them down (with either a snap-shot or tracking shot), or one of the pilots maneuvers successfully to disengage from the scissors, and gets to a safe distance to make an escape, or attempt a new attack.

The flat scissors, if flown to its conclusion, is usually a contest of who can fly more slowly while maintaining sufficient controlled maneuverability to get into position for a kill as quickly as possible.

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